Below you will find abstract of posters and their video presentations if available. Click on title to open the poster

ID 004 Madara Markova, Natalija Nitavska

Working in groups, students generally find challenging. And to work on a large area project, creating a coherent approach, concept, design, and detailed solutions, create additional challenges. Students, in this case, need to cooperate, discuss and make decisions at all levels of the project – most important research findings, concept idea, detail offer (greenery, landscape elements), and where the borders of detailed technical drawing with planned elevation marks will be drawn. The method used is step-by-step guiding of students through the process of planning. This kind of public space planning and design project are part of the landscape architecture program in Latvia for more than 25 years, but new technologies and the amount of information available for students are making them more confused somehow. There is also a need for 3D models and detailed technical drawings to connect solutions and visual solutions. Knowledge students are gaining through this study course is specific research and design principles of the respective areas and examples of good practice. Skills are more with the aim to give students the ability to design an area according to its functions and specific aims as public space could be with different, complex, and also changing seasonally functions. Additional task for students is to identify the most suitable designing principles, as well as plan expected management techniques.

ID 011 Sara Đorđević, Viktorija Brndevska Stipanović, Radenka Kolarov, Divna Penchikj, Jelena Čukanović

Due to urbanization cities are constantly expanding, often at the expense of green areas. This reduction of greenery can be seen on the examples of six historical squares in two countries: The Square of liberty, Trifković square and Gallery square in Novi Sad, Serbia and Macedonia square, Karposh uprising square, and Old train station square in Skopje, North Macedonia. Since they are under the urban heat island effect, in order to improve the microclimate and mitigate the effects of climate change, this paper proposes a green design model applicable to similar squares that deal with the lack of greenery. This paper deals with the past, present, and future state of the appearance and function of the mentioned squares and their grey/green values. After collecting historical data, field observation was conducted with the implementation of checklists on spatial features, user activity, and vegetation which yielded data on the quality of the analyzed area. The results showed that these squares are “grey” – have a high share of impermeable paved surfaces and a low amount of greenery. As these locations are on important city points, implementing a green design would increase their eligibility for the city’s greenery system and improve their ecological role. The creation of a design model that is universal and applicable to other “grey” squares is our main goal. This model will have in common features such as usage of water and heat permeable surfaces, planting resistant trees in sunlit areas which increase shade and planting grass areas that allow unhindered wind movement through the square. The model is widely applied because transforming “grey” to green squares improves the local microclimate and including green squares into the cities greenery system creates a wider effect on a large scale by mitigating climate change effects such as urban heat island.

ID 019 Karel Vandenhende

Are there specific problems to be addressed at certain scales?  Or should each problem be approached using a variety of scales? Leon Battista Alberti introduced the analogy between different scales in his ten books (Alberti, 1452). His famous sentence has been picked up several times since then in architectural theory. 

But is the analogy really there?  In this research, we approach the analogy between scales by checking if the elements of the city, as defined by Kevin Lynch (Lynch, 1972) can also be recognised on a smaller scale?  Among Lynch, people form mental maps of their surroundings consisting of five basic elements: paths, edges, districts, nodes, and landmarks.  Using a study of literature we find several suggestions for similar elements on the smaler scale of a public place.  There, these elements can be replaced for example by passages, borders, places, centres and public art.

But a more interesting conclusion is that investigating this analogy between scales, makes us look at the smaller scale in a fresh new way and changes the focus of the design assignment. Does a public place needs a centre?  Does it need a hierarchical design?  Do we need art on public places? This strategy makes us curious to apply the same strategy in reverse as well.  Which will be the important elements on the scale of the city if we transpose known important elements of the design of a public place to the scale of the city?

ID 022 Estefania Mompean Botias

In recent years the word Emergency has found a place in our everyday life. In a world increasingly interdependent and marked by planetary disruptions, Emergencies are not only on the rise but are becoming a kind of “Emergency condition” punctuated by a series of events often called catastrophic.

As an architect and urban planner, I have asked myself what we understand by Emergency and how does it operate? What does it mean for spatial practices to act under Emergency conditions? How to identify these processes? How to draw them? Can we find cases in which Emergency conditions have already been integrated into built-environment practices? 

From these different questions, I started a thesis regarding Emergency Architectures, and during the first year, I molded the Emergency Atlas. The recomposition from the Emergency appears as a critique of the spatial practices solutionism. In addition, preparedness and post-emergency research have been carried out from process or event casuistry as discrete entities or isolated phenomena. While collecting data for the Atlas, I noticed how everything is segregated by countries, regions, and accident types classifications, without glimpsing the relationships between the different events, the Emergency operability, and most importantly, what emerges from these conditions. 

In this way, the Atlas is constituted of different information layers, at different scales, in a methodology of diffraction and recomposition (Barad 2014). The Atlas retraces past, present, and future events in various entities such as rainfall intensities, coastlines devastated by tsunamis, rivers, agents, topographies, or materialities that overlap to create an Emergency orography and with it a reading of events that modify our experience with the territory and develop vectors of action and relationship. 

Consequently, this Atlas proposes methodologies to navigate the numerous environmental ruptures and their changing dynamic realities from all the scales supporting life and its frictions (Tsing 2004).

ID 038 Dora Tomić Reljić, Lara Bogovac, Petra Pereković, Monika Kamenečki, Ines Hrdalo, Višnja Šteko

In Croatia, landscape studies have become very important tool within spatial planning. Although not obligatory, they are requested by some (conscientious) local authorities in order to insure protection of valuable landscape qualities in planning process. Landscape studies, which usually include evaluation of natural, cultural and visual qualities, have served as an expert basis for urban development plans or general urbanistic plans. However, the problem arises when these studies are expected to replace and encompass the conservation study of cultural heritage as well as the study of biodiversity protection. Although landscape value is combination of natural, cultural and visual qualities in certain area, man’s role in landscape must by no means be left out. 

Since, by definition in European Landscape Convention, landscape is an area perceived by people, a human point of view must be included in process of landscape evaluation. This applies not only to the visual qualities of the landscape, but also to the cultural and natural qualities. In doing so, it must be taken into account that cultural or natural heritage protected by law, including historical structures and valuable natural habitats, does not have to be perceived as valuable to people, regardless of their role in that space. 

This paper aims to address this problem in the context of City of Dubrovnik, which abounds in cultural and natural heritage, recognized by UNESCO and NATURA2000. Special emphasis is placed on the differences in the valuation of cultural and natural heritage and the way they are perceived. It was carried out in GIS by comparative analysis of evaluation maps obtained within the Landscape Study for City of Dubrovnik. The paper pointed out that differences can be bridged by intertwining all values in landscape while respecting every relevant input.

ID 066 Monika Kamenečki, Petra Pereković, Aneta Mudronja Pletenac, Helena Miholić, Dora Tomić Reljić

Large scale planning and vision of then political and social government resulted in never finished Hospital that spread on nearly 20 hectares on the embankment of Sava river in Zagreb. Still half finished, for more than 30 years was part of city identity and living memory of unfulfilled vision. Never revived purpose is represented in the view of the city and questions about the future of this area are periodically raised, primarily and exclusively by political elite through economic profitability. The value of the location is almost immeasurable and not only from an economic point of view but also from environmental and social aspects. On the other hand, we have now independently created urban ecosystem. The transformation and development of the green roof through decades of extreme neglect and non-maintenance continues even today. The questions “what, where and how” are complex and almost impossible to answer. In the meantime, through the process of natural succession we have more than hundred plant species (including trees and shrubs) on hospital green roofs that was initially planned to hold only one species, and one species was sown. The green roof was made by then the newest technical solutions and following sustainable urban solutions. Some of the open topics that has to be considered by all included stakeholders are; preservation of existing urban ecosystem; conservation possibility of this brownfield location; sustainable economic and tourism development and desirable investment in green urban public space. 

ID 084 Junjun Mao, Mingyang Bo, Daixin Dai

China is a country with very serious natural disasters, complex environment and various types of natural disasters. As my country moves towards the construction of ecological civilization, my country’s urban comprehensive disaster prevention has undergone a transition from engineering disaster prevention to “adaptation and coexistence”. At present, ECO-DRR, as an emerging concept, has not been adequately studied in the fields of ecology, climate change, and urban design in my country. Therefore, this paper will introduce two practical cases for solving the urban high temperature problem, and analyze the cases from the perspective of traditional Chinese wisdom and ECO-DRR theory. This will facilitate the international exchange of relevant case studies and provide some useful experiences and references.


ID 094 Başak Akarsu, Gülşen Aytaç

Water has carried, settled, raised, fed, and cultured human beings for millennia, and gave identity to societies and settlements. Sometimes, it was water that comforted or destroyed them, and today the inevitable life trigger is also water. Mesopotamian geography, which grew between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers and fed its topography with water, has witnessed various scales of water cultures. Today’s remains are manifested in the lands of Eastern Anatolia, which is the subject of this study. The water, which has made Anatolia “the cradle of civilizations” by shaping the migration and settlement cycle, has brought collectivity and bureaucracy with it while creating the life parameter and social identity. In this context, the hydraulic society dimension, in Wittfogel’s words, which is considered as one of the various types of society, maintains its place in the historical scene due to its continuation and is an ongoing concern (1967). It is necessary to question what kind of ignorant courage it is that makes human beings, who founded hydraulic civilizations—dynasties—and laid water channels in their houses thousand years and centuries ago in the near orient, in Eastern Anatolia, fight with water, but could not fight, flee, displaced, and made them forget these acculturations. This study investigates the transforming story of water and waterscape scales in Eastern Anatolia, which has continued its manifestation in daily life as a potential for centuries and has been engraved in cultural codes, and that it has become a threat to humanity and human-made cities today.

ID 097 Anita Reith, Péter István Balogh

Schools are important destinations in the city not only, but especially for children. Beside all the differences, all around the world parents want their kids to be safe at the school – so we fence schools to avoid danger to get in. When we say ‘school environment’ we usually limit our attention within the property lines. But what happens around the schools?

The way how we go to the school and how we learn there have changed a lot in the last decades. With motorization growing incredibly fast, cities are mainly occupied by running and parking cars. Walking to school is a privilege today, not like how it was for our parents. There are some cases when children don’t even go to school anymore – with the pandemic, education turned into online environments. In this paper authors review the fundamental changes to find out how the environment of schools have changed and why. Special attention will be paid for the public spaces around the educational facilities schools so the entrance zones and the immediate streets.

A public survey created by the authors helps to find answers for questions like: How do kids arrive to the school now and before? At what age do parents send their kids to the school alone and why? From what distance do children arrive to the school? How do children think about the school’s entrance zone? As school environments differ around the world, this paper focuses on the Hungarian context. 

How can we create safer spaces for arrival and departure by celebrating school entrances? How can education, innovation, safety, identity and playfulness happen outside the property lines of the school? What are the global and local challenges for these public open spaces? Landscape architects should reflect on the current challanges when designing school environments.

ID 125 Alexis Liu

Intense urbanization challenges the boundaries of peripheral landscapes. The overlap of London’s multiple edges, each that mark the limits of London’s planning, transportation, port, and Greenbelt jurisdictions, creates interstitial zones of uncertainty and opportunity. These unsettled edges around London create new landscape forms, unlike the city within or the rural areas beyond. These have become places of intense and uncontrolled urbanization. The development of multiple edges on Greater London’s fringe is highlighted as transportation systems define alternative urban boundaries and divide the land – where roads, railways, and river systems create new land patterns and urban forms while expanding London’s influence. Furthermore, the delineation of the Greenbelt planned as the last barrier to stop endless urban sprawl, is being increasingly challenged. This research investigates Tilbury in east London, an area where the tidal River Thames intersects with the Green Belt, the M25 motorway, the boundaries of the Greater London Authority, and the jurisdiction of Transport for London. The research examines a fluid and fragmented landscape of urbanization and abandonment, questioning the precarious lives and identities undermined by planning agendas and economic transformations. The approach evidences a unique methodological model that combines mapping, walking observation, interview, and visual work, with the aim to make sense of these unique landscape conditions and the possibilities of peripheral areas under urban development. The research brings into focus marginalised peripheries of global cities from a landscape architecture perspective giving voice to less visible lives and landscapes.

ID 127 Marie-Laure Garnier

It is difficult to put oneself in the shoes of a landscape architect and to think about the evolution of territories without feeling in a delicate position, in which the awareness of our impact on our immediate and distant environment places us almost as much in a situation of responsibility as of creativity.

In the framework of my thesis, entitled “Mixed lands, tangled lands. Rethinking the cycle of inert soils from excavation site to landscape project”, observing soil movements and urban metabolism, I became aware of the close dependence of metropolises on their “Hinterlands” in the daily flow of energy and material exchanges, in particular through the binomial “need/resource”, or even the trinomial “need/resource/waste”.

The creativity and a certain understanding of spatiality inherent to the profession of landscape architect and urban planner is modified and nourished by an increased awareness of the functioning of these metabolic flows and their particular geography, linking the territories together.

Thus, the discipline of landscape architecture can learn from the science of territorial metabolism how spatial planning practices are inscribed in a more or less sober materiality, in a period of ecological crisis. Being aware of this can change the reading grid of landscape design, by integrating into the principles of composition and understanding of space an economy as well as an ecology of matter.

In return, landscape architecture, in its capacity to read the different ontological strata of space, from territoriality to landscape perception, can help the thought of metabolism to “set” these flows of matter in a real geography, anchored in a soil and an identity of places, which then becomes more than a system of relations, a set of landscapes in synergy.

ID 134 Zaneta Hong

Landscapes represent a stratum of human interaction comprised of programmed, assembled, and constructed surfaces for occupation. In designing the ground, we transform, shift, adapt its surface materiality including its shape, slope, and aggregate. As landscape architects, we actively participate in this expansive reorganization of Earth’s matter, energy, and form at multiple scales. While the output of spatial interventions tends to manifest as intricate environments and isolated artifacts, their formations are generated from an entanglement of complex ecologies, geologies, and technologies. Whether we consider the products of these exchanges biotic or abiotic in nature, simple or complex in computation, the conditions that manifest their formal and performative qualities are not bounded to any fixed or finite territory – their environmental impact influences an ecosystem of oceans, forests, quarries and an economy of commodification, consumption, depletion.

In a research seminar at Cornell University, students engaged material definitions of terra firma as its site and program of inquiry. Through mate­rial-based, material-scaled drawings, mappings, experimentations and prototyping, students re-defined and re-constituted what we commonly refer to as ground – designing and constructing physical profiles for its subsurface, surface, and super-surface. Students investigated materials beyond a single state, to incorporate multiple territories and multiple scales, along with their socioeconomic and environmental implications in order to better understand the scope of landscape practice and representation.

ID 140 Kamila Adamczyk-Mucha, Lucyna Górska-Kłęk, Kamila Rojek

In solving nowaday problems in different areas is necessary to cooperate, being open, sensitive, and understanding as much as possible for human and nature needs. The very beautiful and often successful field of study is hortitherapy, where landscape and greenery is a factor of therapy. 

There is an important role and work for landscape architects to do in a group of professions to share the experience of understanding, proper analyzing and noticing the potential of landscape with those who use the outside as a base/field for their work. 

The proper creation of surrounding can strongly improve results of therapy for clients, their families and therapists. The challenge is to find common language with therapies, physiotherapists, foresters, architects and landscape architects, to evaluate needs and possibilities of fulfillment in satisfactory way. The landscape architect sometimes is a negotiator who shows great potential in place and greenery in service for better therapy.

As an example in the presentation will be used the foundation “Friendly Planet” (Radomsko, Poland)  and their programm of Forest Treatment, who work with mental disabled clients and with their families. The program is becoming popular in Poland but has not many regular examples in the country. One of the ways to popularize is to educate landscape architects to speak with other professions finding common language and common goals.

The all type of outside therapy, inter alia forest therapy (sivotherapy), is especially important  to improve now, according to contemporary problems with socializing and limitation in meetings in closed environments. It has a great potential also to show the healthy lifestyle model with integration elements, where the base is  interdisciplinary dialogue about using greenery for better life, in mental and physical sphere.

ID 147 Wei Shi

Generally, there are differences in scale between planning and design; however, there are similarities in objectives. Combing these goals and finding the synergy and subordination of each purpose is one of the essential methods in building the relationship between planning and design. Jingxiang ancient road has been an important transportation route in ancient Chinese history. It undertakes the functions of regional religious dissemination, commodity trade, military route, etc. Important historical relics are distributed along the ancient road, which possesses potential value in building heritage corridors. In the planning and design process of the Jingxiang ancient road heritage corridor, this study constructs the overall goal framework. It decomposes the overall goal into three primary goals, and each main goal includes several sub-goals. Under the analysis framework, this paper determines the interaction between the goal and its sub-goals. Moreover, it discusses the implementation of planning and design tasks under the guidance of each goal to realize the overall protection and utilization of the Jingxiang ancient road.

ID 153 Outi Tahvonen, Sari Suomalainen

The municipal governance and development of urban green spaces build on the processes in governance, management, and maintenance, although they are inconsistently used and their meaning varies in the different contexts. The definitions are clear e.g. in the fields of engineering and economic sciences. Maintenance refers to the efforts taken to achieve keep the condition and performance of a machine operating, while management refers to the coordination and administration of resources and processes to achieve desired goals. Governance oversees the management of structures and processes and represents norms, values, and rules of the game in the organization. However, the living environment and especially continuous plant growth forces us to re-think the content of these three concepts in the field of landscape and green industries. Is the maintenance of a plant only the operations that preserve it in the original format or should we rather provide good growth in varying conditions? If the latter, is it then actually management that adapts and optimizes the conditions for the growth? And what is the role of governance to support vegetations growth?

Management in green areas, gardens, and parks refer commonly to this adaptive support of growth at the operational level (1), (2), (3), (4), (5). In addition to these operational activities, such as irrigation, fertilizing, mulching, and pruning, management comprises generally resource allocation of staff and machinery, and site-specific, long-term planning and strategies for maintenance (6), (7). We reviewed a set of documents, guidelines, and manuals to formulate content-driven descriptions for the governance, management, and maintenance of urban green and greenery. Our proposal recognizes the two-fold nature of management as strategic management seems to integrate governance and tactical management to maintenance. This proposal may support further research and practice to introduce User-oriented urban governance and management that Jansson and Randrup claim (2020).

ID 160 Outi Tahvonen, Hannu Äystö

The main components of urban green are water, soil, and vegetation. These components form an interlinked system that exists throughout urban landscapes and land-use categories, and the system continuously adapts to the urban-specific changes. At the site scale, the designer modifies the system by soil specifications, introducing nature-based solutions, and using sustainable urban drainage solutions. However, at the city scale planning defines the base for the system when identifying ecological corridors, master plans for stormwater management, and strategies to manage impermeable surfaces. Students need to be able to see themselves as part of a multidisciplinary professional community that defines and manages urban green. Students gain the capacity to work in a genuinely multidisciplinary team but also emphasize their knowledge of urban green, ie vegetation-related processes, concepts, and stakeholders at different scales.

The Scalable Processes in Built Environment module (15 ECT) has been held at Häme Univesity of Applied Sciences for three years. Processes refer to the cycles of water and nutrients, the succession of urban vegetation, and processes in soil. The module aims to provide students with an overview of the profession and its key concepts in the first year of bachelor’s studies. This paper describes the structure of the module, the experiences of teachers, and the feedback of students about the module. Based on the results, the scalable processes may be challenging for students, but their significance will unfold much later than during the module feedback. For teachers, a completely new module offers an opportunity to reformulate and develop their core competencies in a changing environment.

ID 166 Jozef Sedlacek, Daniel Matějka, Petr Kučera, Radim Klepárník, Zuzana Fialová, Kristýna Kohoutková, Magdaléna Březinová, Veronika Chalupová

One of the unspoken tasks of landscape architecture is to raise topics related to the landscape, the environment, the relationship to the place and its intrinsic values. Related to this is the need to find tools on how we can communicate these topics. The theme is communicated through the visitor experience and through the objects and story that is given by the scenario of the exhibition. An important aspect here is space. These are mainly factors that are related to the creation of the exhibition space itself (transition spaces, so-called warm-up, and cool-down spaces), or its connection to the environment – authenticity and landscape context. These factors are often not even perceived by the visitor but are rather perceived subconsciously. The creation of a spatial scenario is an integral part of the process of interpreting values – from the main message, through the selection of appropriate means of interpretation to the production and physical origin of the interpretive act.

The authors of the article tested this approach at the exhibition Kraj!ina (Landscape!) Its task was to present the original research, focused on the phenomenon of “preadias”, agricultural production units, which influenced the character and use of the landscape in the Czech lands for 400 years and connect it to current discourse on the importance of the agricultural landscape. It is presented to the visitor as a story line with introductory phase, turning point and catharsis, encouraging visitor to engage and activate himself after leaving exhibition ground. The exhibition has an outdoor extension, which brings the visitor to the places he meets at the exhibition and shows him the bleakness of the current agricultural landscape. It was visited by 10 000 individual visitors.

ID 170 Frederico Meireles Rodrigues, Viviana Frutuoso, Ângela Silva

Demarcated in 1756, the Douro Wine Region is the oldest regulated wine region in the world. Port wine is produced within this boundary, in the landscape of higher river Douro vineyards, which has been honoured UNESCO’s World Heritage, since 2001, recognized as cultural, evolving and living landscape. Its integrity and authenticity are well revealed in its landscape pattern, which includes a distinctive mosaic composed of extensive vineyards, Mediterranean forests and groves, green network of corridors, vernacular stone walls, villages, estates and Quintas.
The productive and recreational quality of these Quintas, as “cells” of landscape change, is the object of this study. Since that most of these estates aren’t solely associated with wine production, but stand out as places of delight, they are seen as places of recreation, where the testimony of the Portuguese Garden Art can be documented, reflecting a variety of cultures, movements and authors.
Therefore, with this research, the authors aim to plan a landscape route of recreational Quintas, able to reveal their superlative value in the landscape context, to promote the quality of landscape fruition and to deliver a tourism product of excellence.
This research started with a literature review and landscape characterization, followed by an inventory that produced a list of 266 sites, and a case-study selection method, which allowed a collection of 134 sites for a wide-ranging analysis and a final set of 14 recreational Quintas for in-depth study. As a result, a landscape route with three itineraries was designed and documented. This route is seen as a way to value conservation and dissemination of the recreational Quinta.

ID 184 Frederico Meireles Rodrigues, Maria Helena Moreira, Nádia Parreira

With this research, the authors aim to study the connection between people and nature when walking outdoors, and to understand its impact on people’s wellbeing. As a result, this study provides the source of knowledge for the planning and design of the walking and running course of a green urban park in Portugal.
The methodology combines the theoretical literature review, about landscape qualities and health benefits, with the applied methods, to learn about the landscape character, peoples’ perception and preferences, namely: the park landscape characterization by Line-mapping (Thompson, 2012; Southwell et al., 2013); the landscape visual quality assessment, by the Participant-generated Image method (Wilhelm & Schneider, 2005); the assessment of individual connection with the natural environment, by the Connectedness to Nature Scale (Mayer & Frantz, 2004); the assessment of individual emotional state, by the scale of Profile of Mood States (Gauvin & Spence, 1998; Viana, Almeida & Santos, 2001); and the assessment of the physical effort wile walking through the park, by the Rating of Perceived Exertion (Borg, 2000; Robertson, 2001).
In line with other comparable studies, the connection with the more natural areas of the park as proved to improve mood and activity, and to decrease stress, melancholy, anger, fatigue and confusion, which generally benefits the participants wellbeing. It was also notorious the preference for open views and quality of park composition, as opposed to the lack of care with vegetation and degradation of materials and buildings.
As synthesis it was developed a strategical planning approach, that led to the design programme. The design was completed at different scales and, along the pathway, prioritized the enhancing of views and overall changes of the vegetation structure, improving pavement sections, creating refuge and stay spots and adding artwork.

ID 189 Aline Hessel, Ana Medeiros, Cláudia Fernandes

Visual quality assessment has gained greater importance over the years and is a relevant tool to improve people’s quality of life. These assessments can be accomplished through several methods or a combination of them. However, it is not clear what are the main expert methodologies available and what are the main trends occurring.

A systematic review was developed to identify the main approaches and methodologies for expert visual assessments. The search was performed in the Scopus and ISI Web of Science databases and followed a 4-step screening process, which resulted in 79 records for analysis. Records were categorized according to the year of publication, geographic location (continent and country), landscape type, the framework adopted, and methods used: photo-survey, 3D analysis, visibility analysis, landscape metrics, grid cell, in situ analysis, eye tracking, and mixed.

Records show a considerable increase in recent years (1976 to 2021), observing a notable rise from 2009. Europe and Asia have more records on the issue (44 and 20 records, respectively). Natural areas are the most studied type of landscape (34%) followed by rural areas (24%). Regarding the methodologies applied, most authors developed their own methodologies (85%) using as main methods the photo-survey, and a combination of mixed methods. Although some methodologies still present in situ assessments, the main trend is towards the use of mixed methods using software, such as GIS (Geographic Information System) and digital simulations. Photo surveys of online distribution are also widely applied, as they reach a greater number of respondents, and consequently are more robust.

The assessments made by experts continue to be of great importance for authorities and public entities and show great potential for future scientific research. Although this review has identified very positive trends, it is important that research still strives to achieve more valid, objective and reliable assessments.

ID 194 Frederico Meireles Rodrigues, Ângela Silva, Sara Terroso, Carlos Ribeiro

The river greenways are landscape corridors of high ecological, aesthetical and social value, which have been the target of a variety of planning strategies and design approaches. Design projects such as linear or riverside parks, river landscapes reclamation, naturalization and rewilding, cycling and walking ways are amongst the most common. Many are large-scale designs, which cover substantial areas of river system, and provide people’s extensive access to these landscapes.
This paper emphasises why cities invest in large-scale greenway parks and what are the resulting design challenges. Furthermore, the authors present and discuss the case study of a greenway trail design, through the blue infrastructure of Guimarães, in Portugal. With approximately 60Km the network of trails is an alternative the typical urban scenery, a channel to walk through the city, the repository of rural ethnography, and a linear approach to meandrization, connectivity and access to green space. Therefore, the design objectives were set to value blue and green infrastructure, river landscapes and heritage; and to promote access to nature, learning about biodiversity, and a salutogenic lifestyle.
The design process started with extensive data collection, the landscape character assessment, creating a geographic information system and preparing field work; Field maps were used to register and analyse the most relevant issues and critical path of design decisions; Next was the synthesis of the design programme, with large-scale layout and classification into levels of intervention (from most to least intrusive); Stakeholders and public consultation took place, according to a cocreation approach; Last stage was specifications design, presented across scales, reviewed several times, taking into account the different inputs.
The most important challenges were related with managing ecosystems’ impacts, establishing links to the urban settings and the existing cultural heritage, managing public opinion, balancing the intervention across parishes and construction cost control.

ID 197 Daniele Stefàno

Since the time of Leonardo da Vinci, representation has been a way to investigate and understand the phenomena of Nature. Today, however, the relationships woven between man and Nature have taken on new forms: they have become decidedly complex and seem destined for continuous evolution. Thus, taking into account new needs felt on a planetary and interdisciplinary level, we feel called to reflect on the role of representation in conceiving new relationships with natural phenomena. In various disciplines, new ways of investigating and understanding our way of relating to space, society, and the environment are emerging. Physics, for example, is looking for a theory to unify general relativity to quantum relativity, coming to conceive the existence of strings and other dimensions, curved or rolled upon themselves. In general, it is possible to say that in the era of the Anthropocene, in order to cope with social, geopolitical, climatic and environmental changes, landscape design must tend towards a vision that considers phenomena as a whole, rather than focusing on specific aspects. This approach, which we can call holistic, has quite a few implications for the project. One, for example, is the need to understand and manage very complex phenomena, from small to large scales. But, as many researchers write, if we look at the images of many design competitions, it is clear that today hyperrealism is the predominant mode of representation. Instead of indulging in what Richard Weller effectively calls the “digital sublime,” we need to focus precisely on the processes of the Earth system, to represent real connections between complex phenomena and the everyday life. In this contribution, therefore, we will attempt to investigate how representation can meet these new demands on landscape design to make us able to understand and manage the phenomena of the planet.

ID 199 Nevena Vasiljević, Bordis Radić, Anja Matić, Emilija Medojević, Suzan Gavrilović, Andreja Tutundžić, Momir Krč, Dragana Ćorović, Nevenka Galečić, Sandra Mitrović, Dejana Pešikan, Sofija Mičič, Isidora Elčić

Atlas of Belgrade’s Landscape Character Types is the result of a research study conducted within the project “Landscape Typology for the Sustainable Development of the City of Belgrade following the principles of the European Landscape Convention” realized in cooperation with the University of Belgrade – Faculty of Forestry, Department of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture, and the Secretariat for Environmental Protection – The City of Belgrade. 

The Atlas of Landscape Character Types of Belgrade presents the results of complex, no linear methodological approach, while the creation of contextual and graphical design related to the interpretation of landscape value depicts part of the scientific and educational process which has been carried on in the Landscape Laboratory at the Department of Landscape Architecture and Horticulture within the Faculty of Forestry of the University of Belgrade. During the research period, the authors showed how a fuzzy research methodology informed by complexity of landscape theory could capture new insights into ecosystem services and landscape sensitivity, advancing the variety of landscape guidelines application.

Atlas presents “ID cards” of 22 Belgrade landscape character types with an assessment of their sensitivity. The form of the ID card is graphically designed and is based on the methodology by which the research process was conducted: identification of the landscape character types with an assessment of their sensitivity, interpretation of the structure, functioning and meaning of landscape in the context of ecosystem and landscape services and, in the end, presenting the results in the form of landscape management guidelines – “morphological-ecological” and “landscape- design” rules. 

In this poster presentation, the authors will describe the methodological framework for the novel interpretation of landscape value and sensitivity, and the content of “ID card” for one of 22 Belgrade landscape character types.

ID 200 Jess Bryne-Daniel

Our landscapes, at all scales, are facing tectonic change in the next generation.  From addressing climate change to encouraging greater local empowerment.  From guiding the appropriate response to large scale landscape change associated with carbon sequestration to ensuring the health and well-being of the future users of the spaces we design are accommodated in our urban and residential environments.  Some of these changes will result in large scale global effects, whilst others focus on specific locations at the smallest of scales.  The changes will affect all landscapes from dense urban cities to remote wild landscapes and our marine environments.  

There is a need to understand the potential contribution landscape architects can bring to these opportunities and consequently what landscape education needs to share to enable future landscape architects to tackle these issues with confidence.   From providing a broad overview of the subject through to encouraging specialised research to ensure students are equipped with the necessary knowledge to ensure sustainable and meaningful interventions.

The poster aims to capture pertinent issues effecting change at global, regional and small scales in urban, transitional, rural and marine landscapes, highlighting potential synergies and conflicts.  Interaction the during the conference would provide the opportunity to explore these observations further, enabling delegates to contribute to provide an all-encompassing overview of the scales of change that landscape architects will need to understand to lead future design teams in professional practice.

Through interrogation, discussion and contribution to the content of the poster, we can explore where the greatest scale of change will occur in our landscapes and highlight appropriate teaching that needs to be included as core subjects when planning our future course structures as well as identifying existing research to support future landscape architects in our changing world.

ID 114 Adéla Chmelová

The research focuses on the peri-urban area of the City of Prague. There was built 14 450 new flats in the 2020, 15% of those flats were built in the outer ring of the city (Němec 2020). Predictions warn against dispersed urbanization – Forman calls this „urban tsunami“ (Forman 2008). According to the expected final approval dates, it can be assumed that up to 6 000 flats per year will be completed by 2022.

On one hand we like to follow the numbers from these statistics, but on the other hand we turn away from the landscape solutions around these residential complexes. What can be observed in the peri-urban area is that we are unable to plan for basic human needs.

Based on the Kevin Lynch recognition of spatial elements – district, edge, path, node, and landmark (Lynch 1960) we can see interruptions in the matrix in which those areas are located. People need to fill this unfinished matrix by themselves.

One of the solutions to avoid these matrix failures is to consider implementation of the plan of the area in phases – first step is to prepare the green network, then to complete the matrix with connections and as last to fill the areas in the matrix. Unfortunately, nowadays we still forget that man is a living creature with the need to use the surroundings of his place of residence.